**Expected value** is another central concept in probability theory. It is a measure of the “long-term average” of a random variable (random process). I know this doesn’t sound too clear, but in this post I’m going to explain exactly what it means.

There are many areas in which expected value is applied and it’s difficult to give a comprehensive list. It is used in a variety of calculations by natural scientists, data scientists, statisticians, investors, economists, financial institutions, and professional gamblers, to name just a few.